That is the primary a part of a serious Monetary Instances sequence, Coronavirus: may the world have been spared?, investigating the worldwide response to the disaster and whether or not the catastrophe may have been averted.

The FT has spoken to dozens of medical professionals, authorities officers and abnormal residents in Wuhan to search out out what actually occurred within the first weeks of the outbreak.

In the course of the investigation, among the folks approached have been threatened by police, who stated that the FT had come to the town with “malicious intent”. Police harassment of virus victims, their kin and anybody hoping to talk to them is constant, elevating doubts about whether or not Xi Jinping’s administration is absolutely keen to facilitate the neutral investigation into the pandemic that it has promised the world.


The virus arrives

A barricaded Huanan wholesale market in Wuhan
On December 29, Wuhan Central Hospital found 4 sufferers displaying signs of viral pneumonia. All of them had come from an area seafood market © Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty

It was in late December, whereas scrolling by way of his Twitter feed, that Gao Fei first observed chatter a couple of doable virus outbreak in Wuhan. 

Mr Gao, who had grown up close to Wuhan, frequently used digital non-public community software program to jump over the “Nice Firewall”, as China’s web censorship regime is extra popularly identified, to entry banned websites similar to Twitter. Whereas authorities officers and state media have been saying little or no concerning the virus, he was decided to study extra.

As doubts concerning the true measurement of the outbreak grew by way of January, Mr Gao, 33, determined to hurry house from southern Guangdong province the place he was working as a welder. He arrived in his house village, about 120km from Wuhan, on January 21, only a day after the Chinese language authorities lastly broke its silence concerning the epidemic and confirmed the virus was spreading human-to-human.

The Chinese language authorities had formally notified the World Well being Group on January 3 {that a} “extreme pneumonia of unknown etiology” — science communicate for a mysterious new respiratory illness — had been found in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province with a inhabitants of 11m. However for the primary three weeks of January, Chinese language officers stated there have been just a few dozen confirmed circumstances and downplayed the danger of human transmission.

China, Wuhan locator map

Aghast to search out life in his village unchanged, Mr Gao confronted native officers. “They instructed me they hadn’t acquired any orders from greater degree [officials], so there was nothing they might do,” he instructed the Monetary Instances. “Folks in my village have been nonetheless visiting kin and gathering as regular.”

On January 23, the identical day that Wuhan was subjected to a strict quarantine, he ventured one rung greater up China’s administrative hierarchy, visiting the county authorities. The message there was the identical: “They instructed me they wanted to attend for orders from greater degree municipal officers” in Huanggang, the town that encompasses Mr Gao’s village.

“It was stunning,” stated Mr Gao. “By the point the scenario in Wuhan was completely uncontrolled, different cities only one hour’s drive away have been completely unprepared . . . A number of issues may have been prevented if folks had solely been instructed the reality concerning the virus.”


China and the WHO’s united entrance

Health officers in the passenger area of Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok, Thailand on January 24
Well being officers within the passenger space of Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok, Thailand. Coronavirus was confirmed to have unfold past China, from Wuhan to Bangkok, on January 13 © Lilian Suwanrumpha/AFP/Getty

The sloth and complacency Mr Gao encountered in his house village is central to the continuing geopolitical blame recreation over the coronavirus pandemic, which has now contaminated 39m folks globally, killed greater than 1m and devastated economies on a scale not seen for the reason that Nice Melancholy of the Nineteen Thirties. 

On January 14, a day after coronavirus was confirmed to have unfold past China, from Wuhan to Bangkok, the nation’s prime well being officers convened a confidential assembly in Beijing at which they fretted a couple of “excessive” threat of human-to-human transmission. The sudden look of Wuhan-linked circumstances in Bangkok and, just a few days later, Tokyo steered that Wuhan’s official case rely, which stayed at just a few dozen by way of mid-January, was nonsense.

Coronavirus: may the world have been spared?

The coronavirus pandemic has killed greater than 1m folks throughout the globe. However may it have been averted? A novel FT investigation examines what went flawed — and proper — as Covid-19 unfold the world over

Half 1: China and Covid-19: What went flawed in Wuhan

October 18: The worldwide disaster — in knowledge

October 20: Why coronavirus uncovered Europe’s weaknesses

October 21: Will coronavirus break the UK?

October 22: How New York’s mis-steps let Covid-19 overwhelm the US 

October 23: What Africa taught us about coronavirus, and different classes the world has learnt

In response to the information from Bangkok and Tokyo, epidemiologists at Imperial Faculty London launched a examine estimating that for the virus to be spreading past Chinese language borders, there needed to be about 4,000 symptomatic folks in Wuhan. But throughout this vital week a big annual legislative assembly went forward and a now notorious pre-Chinese new year dinner, attended by 40,000 households, was held within the metropolis on January 18.

The Chinese language authorities and the WHO additionally downplayed rising considerations about whether or not the illness could possibly be transmitted readily between people. Talking at a press convention in Geneva on January 14, Maria Van Kerkhove, appearing head of the WHO’s rising ailments unit, was quoted by Reuters as saying there had been “restricted human-to-human transmission” in Wuhan.

The WHO scrambled to make clear Dr Van Kerkhove’s reported feedback, saying she had solely talked about that human transmission was “doable” and “could” be occurring. “There was a misunderstanding on the press briefing,” the WHO instructed the FT that day. “Preliminary investigations performed by the authorities have discovered no clear proof of human-to-human transmission.” One other six days would move earlier than Zhong Nanshan, a Chinese language epidemiologist and a authorities adviser, lastly confirmed in an interview with state media on January 20 that the virus may truly unfold between folks. 

This was the beginning of what would turn out to be a daily sample through the preliminary phases of the pandemic. Externally not less than, President Xi Jinping’s administration sought to downplay the potential risk of the virus and initially lobbied in opposition to “extreme actions”, such because the early declaration of a world well being emergency and journey bans geared toward Chinese language nationals.

WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus meeting Chinese president Xi Jinping on January 28 in Beijing. Mr Tedros praised ‘the seriousness with which China is taking this outbreak’.
WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus (left) assembly Chinese language president Xi Jinping (proper) on January 28 in Beijing. Mr Tedros praised ‘the seriousness with which China is taking this outbreak’ © Naohika Hatta/Pool/Getty

Formally, it stays WHO coverage to not help journey bans throughout pandemics — because the Chinese language authorities urged in late January when its residents have been the first targets of such bans. Nonetheless by late March, when the virus was coming underneath management in China however spreading unchecked throughout Europe and the US, Beijing modified its thoughts concerning the knowledge of journey bans because it barred virtually all international arrivals.

In a gathering with Mr Xi on January 28 in Beijing, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO director-general, praised “the seriousness with which China is taking this outbreak, particularly the dedication from prime management and the transparency they’ve demonstrated, together with sharing knowledge and genetic sequence of the virus . . . WHO will hold working side-by-side with China and all different international locations to guard well being and hold folks secure”.

Ross Upshur, a public well being professional on the College of Toronto and a WHO advisor, notes that China has all the time had lots of political sway on the WHO, and this has solely elevated since US president Donald Trump introduced in April that he would withhold funding for the organisation. “It’s like David and Goliath, you’ve acquired massive China and also you’ve acquired Tedros . . . there’s an asymmetry of energy there.”

China’s critics who blame Mr Xi and the Chinese language Communist social gathering for the continuing disaster — together with Mr Trump — contend that on the very least, his administration missed alternatives in late December and early January to gradual the unfold of the virus inside China and all over the world. Many argue this failure was a direct results of the ever extra authoritarian tendencies and growing opacity of China’s distinctive “social gathering state” governance mannequin.

“The coronavirus has alerted [the world] that China has turn out to be a risk to folks’s livelihoods, and even their lives, all over the world,” stated Jimmy Lai, the Hong Kong pro-democracy print mogul and one of many social gathering’s harshest critics. “With out freedom, the folks of China are disadvantaged of data and information [they need] to deal with themselves.”

Grieving kin: anger over human price of cover-up

Zhong Hanneng with her deceased son Peng Yi and his daughter in 2019
Zhong Hanneng (left) together with her deceased son Peng Yi (proper) and his daughter in 2019. They visited quite a few hospitals after Peng contracted coronavirus, however they have been all full © Zhong Hanneng

“The federal government cover-up price my son his life,” stated Zhong Hanneng, whose 39-year-old son, Peng Yi, died from Covid-19. “The federal government stored saying there was no human-to-human transmission and we believed them. We had a big household dinner on January 20 with 20 folks.” 

After Peng, a Wuhan major college instructor with a younger daughter, developed a fever, a CT scan of his lungs steered he had contracted the virus. However the first hospital within the metropolis the place he sought remedy didn’t have sufficient take a look at kits to verify his situation and refused to confess him.

“Over the following two weeks we visited quite a few hospitals,” stated Ms Zhong. “They have been all full.” When the household lastly discovered one on Wuhan’s outskirts, no ambulance was out there. Peng was transferred at the back of a small truck at about 1.30am on February 7. The bumpy 90-minute experience could be his final. He died in hospital 12 days later. “Earlier than the virus my son had simply paid off his mortgage and life couldn’t have been happier,” stated Ms Zhong. “Now each day is a distress.” 

Zhang Hai, a Wuhan native now residing within the southern metropolis of Shenzhen, additionally blames the federal government for a liked one’s loss of life. In January he unwittingly organized for his father, Zhang Lifa, to return to Wuhan for leg surgical procedure. Whereas in hospital his father contracted the virus and died per week later.

“The federal government knew how dangerous the virus was at an early stage however didn’t give a public warning and selected to cowl up the reality. That has price so many lives,” stated Mr Zhang. He’s now making an attempt to sue the Wuhan authorities for Rmb2m ($294,000) in compensation, however China’s party-controlled courts is not going to take his lawsuit. Such citizen-suits alleging native authorities negligence after disasters aren’t unusual in China, though they hardly ever succeed. 

The Chinese language authorities has defended its resolution to not acknowledge publicly the seriousness of the outbreak, and the danger of human-to-human transmission, till January 20, arguing it was grappling with an extremely advanced scenario in unclear circumstances. Dale Fisher, an infectious ailments specialist at Singapore’s Nationwide College Hospital, is sympathetic to this argument. “You’ve acquired to recollect this was a novel virus and chaos is absolutely regular, particularly initially of an outbreak, stated Dr Fisher, who has expertise working in west African Ebola hotspots and was a member of a WHO delegation that visited China in mid-February. “You don’t wish to push [the panic] button till you’ve acquired cheap confidence [in your diagnosis].”


A mounting disaster

Wang Linfa, director of the emerging infectious diseases programme at Duke-NUS Medical School
Wang Linfa, Duke-NUS Medical College’s rising infectious ailments programme director, stated China’s political system is a ‘double-edged sword’ that inhibited the nation’s preliminary response to the outbreak, however ultimately helped it to implement efficient containment measures © Ore Huiying

As Wang Linfa toured Wuhan in mid-January, he had no inkling that he was witnessing the start of a world disaster.

Prof Wang is without doubt one of the world’s main authorities on bat-borne ailments, however his presence in Wuhan on the early phases of the outbreak was a coincidence. A Shanghai native residing in Singapore, the place he’s director of the rising infectious ailments programme at Duke-NUS Medical College, Prof Wang travelled frequently to China to fulfill colleagues. His journey had been scheduled since early December.

Most of the preliminary circumstances in Wuhan had already been linked to a reside moist market, a proven fact that triggered reminiscences of the Sars epidemic that emerged within the winter of 2002-2003. Sars emanated from southern Guangdong province and Hong Kong, infecting greater than 8,000 folks and killing 774. The scientific consensus is that Sars originated in bats earlier than transmitting to people through an “intermediate host”, almost certainly a civet cat bought for meals in a market.

“The information of the market was actually a déjà vu second,” stated Prof Wang. “I used to be pondering to myself, ‘Oh my God’ it’s winter, simply earlier than Chinese language new 12 months, and the market . . . I actually thought it have to be just like Sars.”

Prof Wang’s intensive expertise working with Chinese language medical establishments appeared reassuring as he toured Wuhan on January 15, 16 and 17. “Situations [in China] are a lot, significantly better than 17 years in the past,” he stated. “Chinese language medical doctors and scientists are first-class, among the many main scientists on the planet. So I believed that even when that is like Sars, the impression will likely be smaller than Sars.”

Arriving in Wuhan by high-speed rail on January 14, Prof Wang observed only a few folks carrying masks. There have been additionally no temperature checks, each indicators that may have steered native and central authorities authorities have been on high-alert. When he was entertained by his Chinese language hosts as on many earlier journeys, “each meal we went to a public restaurant, [all] very crowded with folks”. Solely within the early morning hours of January 18 did he start to concern the scenario in Wuhan could be much more severe than he had realised. 

As Prof Wang ready to board his flight again to Singapore, he noticed the authorities at battle stations. “They have been doing very stringent temperature screening” earlier than boarding, he stated. “There have been a number of cameras and safety folks and medical workers carrying full PPE. [If you had a] fever you have been banned from travelling out of Wuhan.”

For the primary time he felt afraid and moderated his behaviour: “I believed, it’s like a struggle zone, now it’s actually severe.” He prevented contact with different passengers as greatest he may. The precautions he took could nicely have prevented him from contracting the virus, or worse. A girl on the identical flight would later be confirmed as one among Singapore’s first coronavirus sufferers.

Dale Fisher, an infectious diseases specialist at Singapore’s National University Hospital, said: ‘You’ve got to remember this was a novel virus and chaos is really normal, especially at the beginning of an outbreak’
Dale Fisher, an infectious ailments specialist at Singapore’s Nationwide College Hospital, stated: ‘You’ve acquired to recollect this was a novel virus and chaos is absolutely regular, particularly initially of an outbreak’ © Ore Huiying

Prof Wang referred to as China’s political system a “double-edged sword” that inhibited the nation’s preliminary response to the outbreak, however ultimately helped it to implement efficient containment measures. “It isn’t very efficient within the early a part of any outbreak since you’re not allowed to speak till the federal government says ‘OK, I’m satisfied you’re proper, you’ll be able to speak’,” he stated. “If China’s system turns into extra democratic, it might assist [with transparency] however it could make [containment] much less efficient.” 

To this point Chinese language well being officers have traced the primary confirmed coronavirus case again to December 1, however the hunt for the pandemic’s true “affected person zero” is prone to be futile. Whereas the bulk of people that contract the virus exhibit both gentle signs or none in any respect, they will nonetheless unfold it to others. In medical parlance, Covid-19 is attributable to an “early shedding” coronavirus that spreads quickly by way of communities as a result of most individuals aren’t conscious that they’re infectious. Sars was a “late shedding” coronavirus — sufferers typically turned infectious after that they had been hospitalised, making it a lot simpler to include. “Hospital management we will simply implement to close down issues,” stated Dr Fisher. “Group an infection management is rather more difficult.”

On this respect, discovering the unique coronavirus affected person — the person, lady or baby who ate the bat-bitten cat, pangolin or different as but undetermined intermediate host — is as tough as discovering the primary particular person to contract a seasonal flu. “Affected person Zero could possibly be somebody who unfold to a different 30 sufferers however by no means knew he was contaminated,” stated Prof Wang.

confusion and denial

Inside Wuhan Central Hospital

Staff at an intensive care unit treating Covid-19 patients at a hospital in Wuhan on February 22
Hospital medical doctors have been more and more confused about what info they have been alleged to report back to which authorities over the primary two weeks of January © AFP/Getty

Three weeks earlier than Mr Xi’s administration publicly acknowledged {that a} lethal new respiratory illness was spreading by way of one among China’s largest cities, medical doctors at Wuhan Central Hospital realised that they had an issue.

On December 29 at 2pm, Yin Wei, a physician within the hospital’s public well being division, acquired a name from a colleague reporting that 4 sufferers have been displaying signs of viral pneumonia. All 4 sufferers, Dr Yin’s colleague added, had come from an area seafood market.

In accordance with an inside report later ready by Dr Yin and considered by the FT, he instantly notified the accountable well being official within the native district authorities, Wang Wenyong. Mr Wang was not shocked by Dr Yin’s name.

“Wang replied that he had acquired related stories from different hospitals and the Wuhan Heart for Illness Management and Prevention couldn’t decide the reason for the illness after conducting a number of checks,” Dr Yin wrote. “Wang added that he would reply to me after reporting our hospital’s scenario to his supervisor.”

At 4pm, three extra circumstances of viral pneumonia have been found at Wuhan Central Hospital. At 8pm, district CDC officers got here to the hospital to gather affected person samples, after which they instructed Dr Yin and his colleagues to attend.

Two days later, on December 31, they have been nonetheless ready. So Dr Yin referred to as one among Mr Wang’s bosses on the district CDC to inquire concerning the take a look at outcomes. “I used to be instructed to attend for additional discover,” Dr Yin wrote.

On January 3, Dr Yin tried once more, asking Mr Wang if Wuhan Central ought to not less than fill out an infectious illness report card (IDRC), a web based reporting system shared by native and nationwide healthcare authorities. Once more, he was rebuffed. “Wang replied that we should always anticipate additional discover from greater authorities earlier than reporting a particular infectious illness like this,” Dr Yin recalled in his report.

It was not till January 4, seven days after Dr Yin and his colleagues tried to alert metropolis officers, that they have been lastly allowed to fill out IDRCs for all suspected circumstances of unknown viral pneumonia. 

Mr Wang, the official repeatedly talked about by Dr Yin, stated that “Wuhan Central Hospital was trying to shift blame to me within the report”.

“I didn’t do something flawed,” he instructed the FT, including that everybody within the system was merely following orders. “Wuhan Central didn’t observe requirements established by the town and provincial well being commissions . . . [Yes] we have been cautious in reporting circumstances early on. However that was a collective resolution, not my very own.”

Wuhan Central referred the FT’s requests for interviews with its directors and medical doctors to the municipal authorities, which didn’t reply.

As medical workers at Wuhan Central tried to determine what they have been and weren’t allowed to report greater up the chain, central authorities officers from Beijing have been already at floor zero in Wuhan. A delegation from the Chinese language Heart for Illness Management and Prevention first arrived on December 31, in keeping with an official Chinese language authorities chronology of its virus management efforts.

One tutorial who advises central authorities well being officers stated they even mentioned within the first few days of the brand new 12 months whether or not each day public briefings ought to be held. However Beijing officers didn’t accomplish that till January 22, partially due to the chaotic scenario in Wuhan. “The knowledge [from Wuhan] was not clear,” stated the adviser, who requested to not be recognized. “There have been a number of rumours and native officers’ angle was say little or, if doable, say nothing. It was a large number.”

The WHO stated that it requested Chinese language authorities officers concerning the Wuhan outbreak on January 1 and acquired Beijing’s reply two days later, on January 3. Communist social gathering officers have additionally acknowledged that Mr Xi gave orders regarding the evolving scenario in Wuhan at a January 7 assembly of the politburo’s most senior physique, the seven-man Politburo Standing Committee. In accordance with a number one social gathering journal, the president instructed officers to search out the origin of the virus and “affirm the transmission mechanism as quickly as doable”.

One other one that advises the State Council on public well being issues stated the issue ran deeper than the fog-of-war situations on the bottom in Wuhan. “The Chinese language authorities, particularly at native ranges, lacks the power to successfully talk with the general public in disaster conditions,” he instructed the FT, additionally on situation of anonymity. “The primary job of publicity departments is to maintain the Communist social gathering in energy, to not promote transparency. The pandemic uncovered the system’s weaknesses.”

The confusion amongst medical doctors at Wuhan Central about what info they have been alleged to report back to which authorities grew steadily over the primary two weeks of January. They have been variously suggested by municipal and provincial well being officers to “train warning” and “be cautious” earlier than reporting any new circumstances, in keeping with Dr Yin’s report. 

On January 13, contradictory directions from Wuhan’s well being division and the municipal CDC lastly brought on Dr Yin’s mood to boil over. “Pricey Director Wang,” he wrote. “We have now a scenario about reporting suspected circumstances. The well being division stated we should always ask the CDC to gather samples and conduct investigations, however the CDC stated they should anticipate directions from the well being division. This has prevented a suspected affected person from being examined and investigated. We do not know what has gone flawed. Are you able to assist us determine the issue?”

Inside days, nevertheless, the sufferers falling by way of the cracks within the reporting system have been the least of Wuhan Central’s issues. The hospital’s personal workers have been starting to fall sick, with not less than 56 hospitalised by January 24. An outbreak amongst hospital workers is a tragic however tell-tale signal {that a} illness is transmissible between people.

Li Wenliang, an ophthalmologist  at Wuhan Central Hospital, fell sick from Covid-19 and died in early February
Wuhan Central Hospital ophthalmologist Li Wenliang, who was reprimanded by police on January 3 for allegedly ‘spreading rumours’ concerning the thriller virus, seen right here earlier than and after his hospitalisation. He died in early February from the illness © Social Media/AFP/Getty

Among the many Wuhan Central medical doctors who lay dying in their very own wards was Li Wenliang, a 33-year-old ophthalmologist and one among a number of medical workers reprimanded by police on January 3 for allegedly “spreading rumours” concerning the then thriller virus, though all that they had carried out was focus on it amongst themselves in a non-public chat group. Li’s death in early February would provoke a firestorm of public anger, though one which was largely directed on the native authorities moderately than the central authorities in Beijing.

With confusion rife throughout China by way of most of January, one of many greatest mysteries concerning the preliminary phases of the pandemic is why Wuhan-sized clusters didn’t emerge all around the nation. In accordance with Chinese language flight knowledge cited by state media, between December 30 and January 22 greater than 465,000 folks flew from Wuhan to 10 in style home locations, from Beijing within the north to the southern resort metropolis of Sanya. On the similar time, far smaller flows of individuals from Wuhan to worldwide locations seeded the worldwide cataclysm that’s nonetheless unfolding.

The reply lies within the vastly completely different responses by governments in China and the Asia Pacific area, Europe and the US. 

Chart of cumulative coronavirus cases in China by province, showing that China managed to contain the virus to Hubei province, which accounts for 80% of all cases

Actual Chinese language an infection numbers have been considerably greater than formally reported, however not recorded as a result of virtually all the inhabitants was pressured into strict lockdowns from late January by way of mid-February.

“Each province in China acquired contaminated inside a month [of the Wuhan outbreak] and [their official case counts] typically settled into triple figures as a result of their lockdowns have been harsh,” stated Dr Fisher. “Diagnoses weren’t made as a result of everybody was staying at house. Folks with gentle circumstances most likely unfold it to a few folks of their household who additionally had gentle circumstances and the virus simply burnt itself out . . . Inside three to 4 weeks they have been capable of unlock issues.

Chart of coronavirus cases in China over time, showing how China successfully contained the virus to its peak in February and March

“I used to be in China [in mid-February] and was capable of see the extent of the response,” he added. “Unbelievable lockdowns with trains not shifting, aeroplanes all with covers on their engines, and completely clear blue skies in [often polluted] Beijing. So it did unfold throughout China, however they only shut it down.”

In the meantime different international locations and territories in east Asia — most notably South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore — used a extra versatile mixture of customer bans, contact tracing and lockdowns milder than China’s to include community spread of the virus successfully.

However for these international locations that have been fast to challenge journey bans whereas doing little else in a co-ordinated, nationwide trend, such because the US, it was too late. 

Barricades outside a residential compound in Hubei province, China in March
Actual an infection numbers in China have been considerably greater than formally reported, however not recorded as a result of virtually all the inhabitants was pressured into strict lockdowns from late January by way of mid-February © Getty

Dr Fisher was chatting with the FT by cellphone from Singapore on the morning of August 28. As he did so, he was additionally watching a reside TV feed of the ultimate evening of the US Republican Nationwide Conference. Whereas responding to the FT’s questions, he sometimes interjected his amazement on the scene in Washington. “There’s Donald Trump’s daughter addressing everybody and he or she’s not carrying a masks!” he exclaimed at one level. “Neither is anybody else. They haven’t even distanced the seats!”

Dr Fisher’s view was that “one other couple of weeks” of advance discover concerning the pandemic wouldn’t have helped many international locations. He identified that regardless of it being confirmed that the virus could possibly be transmitted from individual to individual on January 20, “it’s not like [everyone] jumped up and sprang into motion”.

“Most of Asia actually revered this, had programs able to go, and did lots of work in January and February for the day that was coming after they have been going to get smashed,” stated Dr Fisher. “Sadly, many of the remainder of the world wanted to get smashed to have that realisation. As we stated in our February [WHO China delegation] report, this virus can have devastating well being, social and financial results however the world shouldn’t be prepared, in capability or in mindset, to cope with it.”

Prof Wang added that for the entire Chinese language system’s shortcomings within the earliest days and weeks of the outbreak, the remainder of the world ought to have been on excessive alert. As quickly as human-to-human transmission was confirmed and Wuhan went into quarantine just a few days later, international locations may have ready themselves for its arrival as successfully as Taiwan and South Korea did, amongst others.

Most didn’t. Specifically the Trump administration’s response will go down as one of many worst nationwide safety failures within the historical past of the US republic, with the virus breaching even the White Home and the president himself. As Prof Wang stated: “For different international locations to not have taken [the virus] significantly, there’s simply no excuse.”

Extra reporting by Qianer Liu and Anna Gross


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