Earlier this week, a whole bunch of Thai protesters shouted on the royal motorcade of King Maha Vajiralongkorn in a present of unprecedented open dissent in the direction of the monarchy as anti-government sentiment is on the rise throughout the nation.

The persevering with protests have prompted the federal government of Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha to declare a state emergency on Thursday, and order the arrest of activists and their supporters.

For months, the demonstrators have been demanding the resignation of Prayuth, a former army basic and coup chief, and reforms to the nation’s centuries-old monarchy, together with an modification, if not the abolition of the controversial lese majeste legislation.

So, what’s Thailand’s lese majeste legislation, and is it being utilized by the federal government to silence dissent?

Part 112

The Thai monarchy is protected by Part 112 of the nation’s Penal Code, which says whoever defames, insults or threatens the king, the queen, the heir-apparent or the regent shall be punished with imprisonment of three to fifteen years.

The legislation towards royal insults has been current in Thai prison codes for the reason that early 1900s when Thailand was generally known as Siam.

In June this yr, Prayuth immediately introduced the legislation has been suspended upon the directions of the brand new king. However that has not stopped the protests, nor the arrests.

In keeping with a Bangkok Publish report, since Prayuth led a coup in 2014, greater than 90 individuals have been prosecuted underneath the lese majeste legislation, and at the very least 43 of them have been sentenced.

Constitutional monarchy

The king is described in Thailand’s structure as “enthroned ready of revered worship”. Thai royalist traditionalists see the monarchy as a sacred establishment.

The monarchy has deep roots in Thailand, the place kings held absolute energy for a whole bunch of years earlier than a 1932 revolution.

Since then, Thailand has been a constitutional monarchy with the king as the top of state, though King Maha retains a robust and influential position.

The present king’s father, the highly-revered Bhumibol Adulyadej, who died in 2016, had additionally remarked in 2005 that the federal government ought to cease invoking the lese majeste legislation, saying it damages the monarchy as an establishment.

The monarchy has deep roots in Thailand, the place kings held absolute energy for a whole bunch of years earlier than a 1932 revolution [Jorge Silva/Reuters]

On Tuesday, King Maha made a public look to mark the fourth loss of life anniversary of his father – the occasion that sparked the most recent anti-government protests.

Prosecution underneath the legislation

There have been solely occasional prosecutions earlier than 2014, when Prayuth took energy in a coup, in line with the Thai Legal professionals for Human Rights group.

A lot of these convicted on the time have been pardoned by the then-King Bhumibol.

However between the 2014 coup and early 2018, at the very least 98 lese majeste prices have been filed, in line with a authorized database by Thai watchdog iLaw.

Human rights teams mentioned lots of these instances have been used to persecute opponents to the army authorities, an allegation the army authorities denied. Amongst prosecutions was one for defaming the late king’s pet canine.

A professional-democracy protester, proper, scuffles with a pro-monarchy one, centre, throughout an anti-government protest on the democracy monument in Bangkok on Wednesday [Rungroj Yongrit/EPA]

In a high-profile lese majeste case in 2011, a 61-year-old Thai man, Ampon Tangnoppakul, was sentenced to twenty years in jail for allegedly sending 4 textual content messages deemed to have been offensive to the royal household.

The next yr, Ampon died of liver most cancers in jail, nonetheless claiming he was harmless of all prices.

Royal insult

The latest royal insult case was prosecuted in March 2018 towards two males for attempting to burn photos of the king, in line with Thai Legal professionals for Human Rights.

A neighborhood courtroom dropped the royal insult cost however discovered each responsible of being a part of a prison organisation and arson.

In keeping with the lese majeste legislation, anybody can file a criticism towards others with out being the broken occasion, a provision that critics say is being abused by royalists and the present authorities.


Rights teams additionally mentioned opponents of the federal government have not too long ago been charged underneath different legal guidelines similar to these towards sedition and pc crimes.

Final yr, three exiled Thai activists dealing with prices of insulting the monarchy disappeared in Vietnam after reportedly being arrested over there.

In keeping with Human Rights Watch, the three have been reportedly turned over by Vietnam to Thai authorities. The Thai authorities has denied the report.

Additionally in January of 2019, the concrete-stuffed our bodies of two exiled critics of the army and the royal household have been found alongside the Mekong River border with Laos.

The federal government has mentioned it doesn’t goal opponents and that it’s the accountability of the police to uphold the legislation.

However with protests rising even bigger, the federal government is scrambling to search out methods to comprise dissent, elevating fears of extra crackdowns.


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